Science Gazette

Energy development will be connected to nanotechnology and the creation of new nanomaterials

Silicon wafer

At the moment, considerable scientific research is focused on the prospect of transforming the solar particle flow falling on Earth into power. The appearance of novel nanomaterials has expanded the possibilities for progress in this field.

In today’s serious scientific circles, there is no question that the substance graphene is capable of producing electric current under the impact of different electromagnetic radiations. Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were able to generate a direct electric current under the influence of terahertz radiation by mixing graphene with boron nitride. Terahertz waves are common in our daily lives, and when concentrated, the wave energy might possibly serve as an alternative energy source. The MIT researchers also discovered that the more powerful the incoming terahertz energy, the more energy the device can convert into direct current. The researchers created a terahertz rectifier within an antenna using a tiny square of graphene that lies atop a layer of boron nitride. It will gather and concentrate the ambient terahertz radiation, increasing its signal to the point where it can be converted into direct current.

Despite the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s scientific credibility and state financial support, the German scientific and technological company Neutrino Deutschland GmbH, a member of the international Neutrino Energy Group, should take first place in the research of the practical use of graphene for electricity generation. This company has developed a method for producing direct electric current by depositing multilayer nanocoatings of graphene and doped silicon onto metal foil (patent number EP3265850A1). The multilayer arrangement of alternating layers of graphene and doped silicon is thought to “knock” the interactions between the graphene electrons out of equilibrium. The total effect was what physicists term ‘oblique scattering,’ in which clouds of electrons deflect their velocity in the same direction, resulting in what is known as a steady electrical current.

This exceptionally radiation-sensitive energy cell design can convert not only the impacts of terahertz waves, but also the kinetic energy of neutrinos and other particles in the invisible radiation spectrum, thanks to the multilayer material and enhanced oscillatory motion of graphene atoms. This enables direct electric current to be received around the clock, including in the dark, regardless of the location of the energy cell. Furthermore, in the absence or weak background impact of terahertz waves and other radiation fields, such a multilayer construction of layers of graphene and doped silicon will allow for the receipt of a constant current only from the impact of cosmic particles of the invisible spectrum of radiation (neutrinos), as confirmed by independent tests in the Faraday cage under conditions excluding the impact of terahertz waves.

The Neutrino Energy Group presented research results on Neutrinovoltaic technology, demonstrating that 2.5-3.0W of power production from an A-4 plate was produced in a Faraday cage. Under these conditions, the power was solely affected by two variables: temperature and neutrino. In laboratory tests, an identical plate with no insulation in a Faraday cage produced a consistent power output of 3.0 W, indicating that there is little or no change in the generated power. As a result of these findings, it seems that temperature and neutrino flux are the most important elements determining the produced electric current power. Temperature testing at -40°C revealed a power drop of roughly 25%. This implies that, in addition to temperature, the contribution of the cosmic neutrino flow of 60 billion particles per second via 1 cm2 of the Earth’s surface to electrical power generation is considerable.

This conclusion is critical because it demonstrates that Neutrinovoltaic current sources recruited from such electrical producing plates would also create electricity distant from sources of artificial radiation fields such as electrosmog, mobile phone towers, terahertz waves, and so on. Most scientists, citing various textbooks, would quickly assert that neutrinos “pierce” the Earth and do not interact with matter in any manner. However, this understanding of the neutrino is plainly out of date:

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To begin, a neutrino possesses mass and hence energy (E=mc2), which is now widely acknowledged. Scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) were able to establish the neutrino mass with remarkable precision in 2019.

Second, new findings from ORNL’s Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) study, published in science, give solid evidence for the neutrino interaction mechanism. The researchers were the first to observe and analyse neutrinos’ coherent elastic scattering at nuclei. The investigations are detailed in the paper “The world’s smallest neutrino detector reveals a significant physics imprint.” A low-energy neutrino “hits” the big, heavy nucleus of an atom, much like a tennis ball striking a bowling ball, and transmits a little amount of energy to it. As a consequence, the nucleus bounces back almost imperceptibly, implying that low energy neutrinos interact weakly with the nuclei of things.

Neutrinos are only involved in minor interactions. As a result, the scattering cross section of neutrinos is very small, and the likelihood of detecting them is nil. Only when a big neutrino flow is replaced by a massive detector can neutrinos be detected. High-energy neutrinos, on the other hand, may be detected by detectors, indicating that they interact with matter.

Holger Thorsten Schubart, President of the international research alliance Neutrino Energy Group states:

“It is critical for us that neutrinos create oscillations of graphene atoms by “penetrating” the super-hard nanocoating. We address the interaction of low-energy neutrinos with matter, as demonstrated by COHERENT project experimental results. Higher energy neutrinos, such as high-energy and ultra-high-energy neutrinos, are thought to generate higher vibrations of graphene atoms. This interaction can be compared to a stone thrown into water, which causes waves on the water’s surface, however the energy loss as it passes through the nanocoat may be minimal. The passage of 60 billion neutrino particles per second across 1 cm2 of the Earth’s surface, on the other hand, causes ” graphene ” waves to emerge.”

A group of scientists from the University of Arkansas investigated graphene placed on a copper plate. Using a scanning tunnelling microscope, they noticed variations in atom location. They made a key discovery: like waves on the sea’s surface, a wave in graphene arises from a collection of tiny spontaneous movements and leads to bigger spontaneous motions. Surface waves with horizontal polarisation are produced when one atom’s displacement is added to the displacements of other atoms, and are known in acoustics as “Lyav waves.” Because of the characteristics of graphene’s crystal structure, its atoms vibrate in tandem, distinguishing such motions from the spontaneous movements of molecules in liquids.

When the internal frequency of graphene atom vibrations caused by temperature effects coincides with the frequency of graphene atom vibrations caused by the influence of neutrino particles or particles of other radiation fields with mass, a phenomenon known as resonance of graphene atom vibrations appears, which multiplies the electron recoil when “graphene” waves make contact with layers of doped silicon.

The internal symmetry of graphene, or what scientists term an “inversion,” must be disrupted in order to drive the nanomaterial’s electrons in one way. Graphene electrons normally have an equal force between them, which means that any incoming energy dissipates symmetrically in all directions. Scientists at Neutrino Deutschland GmbH were able to break the graphene inversion and produce an asymmetric flow of electrons in response to input energy by employing high-purity graphene in the nanomaterial developed and adding alloying materials according to patent number EP3265850A1.

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The well-established interaction of neutrinos with matter opens up a fresh window into the vibrations of atoms in a crystal lattice. In physics, these vibrations are related to the temperature of the crystal’s material and the mutual impact of surrounding atoms on each other – thermal, elastic, and so on. New information on neutrinos’ interactions with atomic nuclei provides excellent grounds to believe that the vibrations of atoms in the crystal lattice are affected not just by temperature, but also by neutrinos. Consider the materials graphene and silicon as proof of the preceding assumption’s validity.

The vibrations of graphene atoms are 100 times stronger than the vibrations of silicon atoms under the same circumstances, notably temperature conditions. The atomic mass of graphene (one-atom layer of graphite – a natural material with a layered structure made of carbon atoms) is 12.0096 u.m., whereas silicon (chemical element of the 14th group) is 28.0855 u.m. According to COHERENT project experimental data, the lighter the atomic mass of a substance, the stronger the influence of low-energy neutrinos on it, and hence the stronger the vibrations of its atoms. According to COHERENT project experimental data, the lighter the atomic mass of a substance, the stronger the influence of low-energy neutrinos on it, and hence the stronger the vibrations of its atoms.

When analyzing the outcomes of neutrino interactions with matter, the findings of a team of scientists from ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich) lead by Professor Vanessa Wood, published in the paper “Atomic Vibrations in Nanomaterials,” should be considered. Vanessa Wood of ETH and her colleagues describe what happens to atomic vibrations when materials are nanoscale in Nature, and how this information can be utilized to methodically create nanomaterials for various uses. The research demonstrates that when materials are reduced to less than 10-20 nanometres in size, which is 5000 times smaller than a human hair, the vibrations of the outer atomic layers on the surface of the nanoparticles are substantial and have a key impact in how that material behaves. This finding might be understood as follows: low-energy neutrinos interact with nanomaterials mostly in their higher atomic layers.

The data on the composition of the electrically producing multilayer nanomaterial supplied in the description of patent number EP3265850A1 coincides with the data on neutrino-matter interaction results given above, where the authors of the patent specified

“It is especially advantageous if the coating is a nanocoating with nanoparticles of graphene and silicon. In this situation, the silicon particles should be between 5 nm and 500 nm in size, preferably 5 nm, and the graphene particles should be between 20 nm and 500 nm in size, preferably 20 nm, because particle size reduces efficiency. The coating has alternating layers of silicon and graphene, namely 10 to 20 layers of silicon-graphene, specifically 12 layers of silicon-graphene. The 12 layers are especially useful since the tension is lessened after 12 layers.”

Of course, analyzing neutrino-matter interactions necessitates more basic research as well as the participation of neutrino physicists. Basic research is not the goal or objective of Neutrino Deutschland GmbH, a German science and technology company that is part of the international Neutrino Energy Group, as the company is focused on finding a purely technological solution to create a new type of electricity generation without greenhouse gas emissions.

My objective is that my presentation of neutrino-matter interactions will serve as a precursor for future fundamental research in this sector. The development and use of breakthrough Neutrinovoltaic technology in everyday life will herald the start of a new age in energy, and it is arriving faster than some skeptics expect.

Author: L.K. Rumyantsev, Ph.

 

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