Scientists have discovered the cause of a mystery tsunami that hit the world in 2021. A magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck in the South Sandwich Islands in August 2021, causing a tsunami that shook the world. The epicenter was 47 kilometers under the surface of the Earth, much too deep to cause a tsunami, and the rupture was approximately 400 kilometers long, implying a much greater earthquake.
Scientists have discovered the cause of a mystery tsunami that hit the world in 2021.
A magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck in the South Sandwich Islands in August 2021, causing a tsunami that shook the world. The epicenter was 47 kilometers under the surface of the Earth, much too deep to cause a tsunami, and the rupture was approximately 400 kilometers long, implying a much greater earthquake.
Seismologists were perplexed, and they tried to figure out what had occurred that day in the far-flung South Atlantic.
According to a recent research, the quake was really five sub-quakes spaced out across many minutes, rather than a single event. The third sub-earthquake was a deeper, slower magnitude 8.2 tremor that struck barely 15 kilometers under the surface. The global tsunami was most likely triggered by that odd, “hidden” earthquake.
The research was published in the American Geophysical Union’s journal Geophysical Research Letters, which publishes short-format, high-impact publications having significance in Earth and space sciences.
The seismic signal from the South Sandwich Islands earthquake was difficult to understand because it was complex, with several sub-quakes, according to main research author Zhe Jia, a seismologist at the California Institute of Technology. The magnitude 8.2 quake was obscured by a tangle of seismic waves that interacted with one another throughout the event. Jia filtered the waves over a considerably longer time, up to 500 seconds, to reveal the concealed quake’s signal. Only then did the 200-second quake become apparent, which Jia said accounted for approximately 70% of the energy released during the earthquake.
“The third event was unique because it was both large and quiet,” Jia said. “It was barely imperceptible in the data we routinely look at [for earthquake monitoring].”
As the South Sandwich Islands quake demonstrated, predicting the dangers of complex earthquakes may be challenging. As the surprise tsunami lapped on coasts up to 10,000 kilometers distant from its point of origin, the USGS first recorded the magnitude 7.5 quake and then added the 8.2 event the next day.
“To prevent earthquake-tsunami dangers, we need to rethink our approach. To do so, we need to define the real scale of large earthquakes, as well as their physical processes, quickly and correctly “Jia said.
It’s vital to improve our forecasts since this sort of earthquake might result in an unforeseen tsunami. “When these complicated earthquakes occur, we often say to ourselves, “Oh, that wasn’t that huge, we don’t have to worry.” Then the tsunami strikes, wreaking havoc on the area “Judith Hubbard, a geologist at Singapore’s Earth Observatory who was not involved in the research, agreed. “This research is an excellent illustration of how we can better understand how these occurrences occur and how we might identify them sooner in the future to give us greater notice.”
Seismic impulses that are hidden
When an earthquake occurs, it sends shockwaves across the Earth. These seismic waves are used by a worldwide network of earthquake monitors to determine the time, position, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. According to Jia, most wave monitoring focuses on short and medium-durations of time, while longer periods might be overlooked. Long durations of observation, on their own, aren’t adequate to capture complicated earthquakes with jumbled seismic signals.
“It’s difficult to locate the second earthquake since it’s buried under the first,” Jia said. “Complex earthquakes like these are very uncommon. … And if we don’t utilize the correct dataset, we won’t be able to view what’s within.”
According to Jia, a simple earthquake may be simply located and explained. A messy one, on the other hand, must be meticulously dismantled to determine what specific mix of smaller earthquakes created the complicated one.
During those tumultuous earthquakes, Jia and his colleagues devised an algorithm to separate the seismic waves. The program can determine the location and attributes of distinct sub-earthquakes by “decomposing” complicated earthquake signals into simpler forms utilizing waves with varied durations (ranging from 20 to 500 seconds). It’s the same as someone with perfect pitch hearing five discordant sounds at once and being able to distinguish each one.
“I believe a lot of folks are intimidated by working on events like this,” Hubbard remarked. “The fact that someone was ready to go deep into the data to find it out is quite beneficial.”
A long-term aim, according to Jia and Hubbard, is to automate the detection of such complicated earthquakes, just as we do for simple earthquakes. The tsunami from the 2021 earthquake was minimal by the time it reached the coastlines, and penguins make up the majority of the permanent occupants of the distant volcanic islands. Complex earthquakes, on the other hand, may be dangerous if they create massive tsunamis or hit a heavily populated area.